Starting garden plants from seeds indoors can be an enjoyable project for any gardener. It's a relatively inexpensive way to grow a wide variety of plants. Many garden favorites are found in a greater variety of colors, sizes and growth habits as seeds, rather than as started plants.
When selecting vegetable varieties, check packets for the number of days until harvest to be sure your choices will ripen before frost. Many long-season vegetables must be started indoors in early spring. Similarly, many annual flowers need an indoor start if they are to bloom during the summer.
The University of Wyoming provides a great article in Barnyards & Backyards.
Necessary items: seed, containers, and soil-less mixtures
Timing, just to name a few:
Early February: geraniums, pansies/violas, wax begonias, leeks, onions
Mid-February: dusty miller, fountain grass, impatiens, larkspur, lobelia, celery
Early March: petunias, black-eyed Susan, scabiosia, snapdragons, verbena, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, head lettuce
Mid-March: bells of Ireland, candytuft, cleome, dianthus/pinks, hollyhock, marigold, ornamental pepper, annual phlox, sage/salvia
Early April: amaranthus, aster, baby's breath, bachelor buttons, calendula, morning glory, nasturtium, tomatoes
Mid-April: cosmos, sweet peas, thunbergia, zinnia
Early-mid May: harden off outside, first in the shade and then in the sun. Bring inside during freezing temperatures.
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